IVF also known as test tube baby in layman language involves creation of human life at microscopic level by retrieving eggs and sperm out of the male and female body and fertilizing them in the IVF lab. The first successful test tube baby was reported in 1978. Louise Brown who was the first test tube baby conceived child s herself a mother now. Nearly 8 million babies have been born through test tube baby ,children conceived thus are healthy. The following steps briefly describe
A woman usually produces one mature ovum in one menstrual cycle. For test tube baby injectable gonadotropins are administered for a period of 8 -10 days in order to produce atleast 10 -15 eggs in a single menstrual cycle. Injectables are usually self- administered by the patient and are not painful. During this phase female will undergo trans-vaginal sonography on 2 to 3 occasions to determine follicular (egg) size, and once they are mature size trigger injection is administered and egg retrieval is performed 34-36 hours after.
Eggs are retrieved under anaesthesia through trans-vaginal sonography guided needle aspiration. The male partner produces a semen sample through masturbation or in case with zero sperm count surgical sperm retrieval is performed.
For test tube baby procedure eggs and sperm are fertilized in a petri dish. In certain indicated cases intra cytoplasmic sperm injection is done that is a single egg is fertilized with one sperm via a micro manipulator. The embryos thus formed are graded and the best quality embryos are chosen for transfer
For those deemed for fresh embryo transfer in test tube baby procedure about 1 or 2 good grade embyros are transferred back to the uterus through trans vaginal approach. The remaining good grade embryos are frozen. In certain case when fresh embryo transfer cannot be done due to certain factors ( endometrial, high progesterone levels, hyperstimulation), all embryos are frozen and are later transferred after the individual factors are corrected through medications or hysteroscopy.
14 days after embryo transfer is performed, blood beta hcg level is performed to check for pregnancy. Success rates are nearly 70 % in single attempt at embryo transfer in test tube baby procedure and about 85-90% cumulatively in 2 embryo transfer cycles.